Green facades, white roofs and wind towers: how megacities escape the heat
3. Wind in the city
Arab cities of the future use ancient technologies: in Masdar, which is being built in the middle of the desert, buildings are placed close to each other, roofs are placed at a special angle, and a 46-meter wind tower draws in cool air like a funnel and releases it onto the streets of the city. It works very cool: even if the desert has warmed up to +35 °C, it can be only +20 °C in Masdar! First Badgirs– wind towers – appeared in the Middle East 1000 years ago, but they were placed not on the streets, but in houses. Bagdir can be considered a prototype of an air conditioner: the tower ran through the center of the building, removing stale air from the room and drawing in clean and cool air. And, mind you, without any electricity!
German Stuttgart, surrounded by hills, is ventilated with the help of ventilation corridors – wide streets with trees that allow clean air to descend from the heights into the city. Buildings are prohibited in several areas so that houses do not interfere with the movement of air masses.
4. Dynamic facades
Another time-honored technique is shutters and grilles that cover houses from the sun. One of the ultra-modern skyscrapers in Abu Dhabi used the mashrabiya principle- a medieval carved lattice that lets light and air into the room, but not the burning rays of the sun. In its likeness, the Twin Towers have created a complex dynamic façade of hundreds of wooden hexagonal panels that open and close depending on where the sun is.
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5. Just add water
Artificial reservoirs and fountains have cooled cities since the Middle Ages, and today they are helped by a variety of water installations. Their use allows you to reduce the temperature by an average of 1.5 ° C, and if there is a lake or river nearby, by as much as 10 ° C. Special frames with water sprayers can be seen in parks and on the streets of many European cities. In China's hot Chongqing, bus stops are stocked with sprinklers that create a cool cloud of droplets around them. But zealous Germans, taking care of creating a comfortable environment, do not forget about saving resources: they collect rainwater so as not to spend drinking water on irrigation. Underground rainfall tanks are going to be built in Stuttgart, and in Münster, conscientious citizens who water plants with rainwater and plant green roofs receive discounts on tap water – up to 80%.